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基础医学和临床 详细
生理学、病理学、生物化学、分子生物学、生物医学工程、心血管内科、呼吸内科、脑外科、神经外科、医学检验...
 
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IEC报告、X光机、超声仪、MRI、CT、呼吸机、血液净化仪、心脏起搏器、手术器械、实验室及临床各科...
 
国际会议同传口译 详细
国际学术会议、研讨会、年会会议现场口译、同声传译;远程会议翻译、视频影像资料、大会议程翻译;商务会谈...
 
 
翻译技巧学习
医学英省略句的翻译
作者:蒋吉清
发布时间:2007-08-30
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     医学英语中并列句和复合句的省略大量存在,省略的部分主要是一些词(或成分)。下面就怎样补充这两类句子中省略的词(或成分)进行探讨。  1.  补充并列句中省略的词(或成分)      在并列句中,第二个(或第三个、第四个……)分句与前面相同的部分,常予省略。这种省略的部分不难从前面的分句中推想出来。       Much can be ascertained by inspection of the stool; thus the pale, slimy, fatty stool indicates fat indigestion, the curdy stool (indicates) protein indigestion, while the pale, frothy stool results from excess of sugar.      一般通过肉眼观察大便就可以很清楚地查明:灰白的、粘性的、脂样的粪便表示脂肪消化不良;凝乳样的粪便表示蛋白质消化不良;而灰白色有泡沫的粪便则是由糖类过多所引起(补充indicates)。      The patient’s trachea should he opened as soon as possible and the foreign body (should be) removed at once.      病人的气管应尽快切开,异物应立即取出(补充should be)。      In other words, an atom of chlorine will combine with one hydrogen atom, an atom of oxygen (will combine) with two (hydrogen atom),an atom of nitrogen (will combine) with three (hydrogen atoms),and an atom of carbon (will combine) with four (hydrogen atoms).      换句话说,一个氯原子会与一个氢原子化合,一个氧原子会与两个氢原子化合,一个氮原子会与三个氢原子化合,而一个碳原子会与四个氢原子化合(第二、三、四分句中均省略了will combine和hydrogen atoms,译文均予补充)。      Some diseases are communicated from man to man on1y; some, from animal to man; some , from man to animal and from animal back to man; and some, from animal to animal only.       有些病只在人与人之间传播,有些病是从动物传到人,有些病则从人传到动物,又从动物传回到人,而有些病则仅在动物之间传播(第二、三、四分句中some后均用逗号代替了省略的diseases  are communicated等词,译文均予补充)。      This time the experiment failed and (it was) a good thing too, for it enabled us to realize our shortcomings.       这次实验失败了,但〔这〕也是好事,它使我们明白了自己的不足(补充it was,但it也可免译)。      In most cases there are three main pile masses, one (is) situated anteriorly, the others (are situated) posterolaterally.      大多数病例有三个主要的痔块,一个位于前面,其余的位于后侧面(两个分句分别补充is和,situated)。      但有时并列句中省略的词(或成分)翻译时也可不予补充。例如:      During the period of convalescence, activity should be restricted for 10-14 days and exposure to sunlight (should be) avoided.      在恢复期,应限制活动10到14天,并避免日晒(省略部分不必补充)。      For one engaged in a sedentary occupation, this extra energy requirement rises to from 30-40 percent above basal; for one at moderately active muscular work, (this extra energy requirement rises to from) 40-80 percent (above basal); and for one at hard muscular work, (this extra energy requirement rises to from) 80-200 percent (above basal).      一个坐着干活的人,所需要的卡数比基础代谢多30%-40%a,轻体力劳动者多40%-80%,而重体力劳动者则多80%-200%(各省略部分均不予补充)。       Antibody levels against a soluble antigen of the virus are measured by complement fixation; (antibody levels) against the virus itself (are measured) by agglutination inhibition, or by neutralization in vivo.      与病毒的可溶性抗原相应的抗体滴度,用补体结合法予以测定;和病毒本身相应的抗体,用血细胞凝集抑制法或体内中和试验测定之(省略的levels不予补充)。  2.  补充复合句中省略的词(或成分)      复合句中的省略情况比并列句多,但这种省略部分翻译时不一定都要补充。应否补充主要取决于是否符合汉语遣词造句的习惯。      When such organisms gain entrance to the tissues, they grow and thrive unless (they are) clrecked by the forces of the circulation that appose them.      当这类细菌进人组织后,如果循环中的对抗力量不能够阻抑它们,细菌就会生长和繁殖(省略的they are予以补充)。      Whatever its cause  (may be),the management of the anorexia requires psychological support and good preparation of food.      不管其病因是什么,食欲缺乏的处理是需要心理上的支持和食物烹调的改善(省略的be予以补充)。      When the patient with regional enteritis complains of the symptoms arising from disaccharidase dificiency, the clinician should be alert to evaluate an elimination diet starting with lactose containing components and consider diagnostic studies using tolerance tests and/or enzyme analyses of small bowel mucosa, if (it is) available.      节段性肠炎病人诉述由于二醋酶缺乏所引起的症状时,临床医师就应机智地为病人计算一种开始时包含乳糖成分的脱敏食谱,并且考虑做一些诊断上的研究,如耐受性(负荷)试验和(或)小肠枯膜的酶分析(省略部分不予补充)。      So great is the reserve of the body that the heart, even though (the heart is) enlarged, if taken proper care of will perform its allotted task creditably.      人体的潜力是如此之大,以致即使心脏肥大,只要得到适当的照顾,心脏就能够可靠地完成它所担负的任务(省略部分予以补充)。      Biopsies, although (they are) inconclusive, are definite1y worthwhile.      活组织检查虽然不是结论性的,但确有一定价值(省略的are予以补充)。  This is such a common place occurrence that there is a rule of thumb that any convulsion occurring after the age of thirty years should be regarded as brain tumor until (the convulsion is) proved otherwise.      这是一个如此普通的现象以致靠经验估计就可推出30岁以后发生的任何惊厥都应看作脑瘤,除非证明另有别病(省略部分不予补充)。      While not all would be suffering ill-effects of drug administration, a significant proportion would be (suffering ill-effects of drug administration).      虽然不是所有用药的病人都患有药物反应性疾病,但是确有相当一部分人会得这种疾病(省略部分予以补充)。                                                       (引自:医学情报工作,2001(01):54-56)
 
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